The opinion of the court was delivered by: ARONOVITZ
Sidney M. Aronovitz, UNITED STATES DISTRICT JUDGE.
In a six count complaint, the plaintiff, National Enquirer, Inc. ("Enquirer") has brought this action against News Group Newspapers, Ltd. ("News Group"), the defendant, essentially alleging the wrongful appropriation and use of photographic pictures of the wedding of actress Joan Collins and Peter Holm. Specifically, the Enquirer charges News Group with copyright infringement, unfair trade practices and unfair competition, conversion, intentional interference with business relationships, unjust enrichment, and breach of contract.
Collins and Holm were married on November 6, 1985 in a private ceremony in Las Vegas, Nevada. News Group published four black and white photos of the wedding in the November 10, 1985 edition of its British publication, News of the World. The Enquirer claims that this publication of the pictures was unauthorized and in contravention to its exclusive rights in the pictures. News Group argues that it had negotiated a valid contract with the Enquirer for the British publication rights of the wedding pictures.
News Group has moved to dismiss under Fed. R. Civ. P. 12(b)(1)-(2) for lack of subject matter jurisdiction over the copyright claim, and lack of personal jurisdiction over News Group. The Court will address the personal jurisdiction issue first.
Before beginning to state the facts material to the issue of whether the Court has personal jurisdiction over News Group, it is necessary to establish the appropriate standard for determining disputed facts. Ordinarily, the Court would restrict its inquiry to whether the plaintiff's complaint alleges adequate facts to support personal jurisdiction over a foreign defendant. In this case, the plaintiff's complaint is undeniably meager in alleging a factual basis for jurisdiction over News Group. But the Enquirer chose to supplement its complaint with affidavits and deposition evidence, and News Group responded with similar evidentiary support.
News Group suggests that the posture of this case requires the Enquirer to prove the facts establishing in personam jurisdiction by a preponderance of the evidence. It reasons that as both parties have extensively supplemented the pleadings with affidavit and deposition evidence, the Court must resolve factual disputes against plaintiff's obligation to demonstrate jurisdiction by the preponderance of the evidence.
News Group cites Evans v. Tubbe, 657 F.2d 661, 663 (5th Cir. 1981), as holding that where the parties have mounted a factual attack at the jurisdictional issue, as opposed merely to relying upon the pleadings, "the plaintiffs have the burden of proving that federal jurisdiction does in fact exist." The Evans court stated that "when a factual attack is made upon federal jurisdiction, no presumptive truthfulness attaches to the plaintiffs' jurisdictional allegations, and the court is free to weigh the evidence and satisfy itself as to the existence of its power to hear the case." Id.
News Group's reliance upon Evans is misplaced. The dispute in Evans was over subject matter jurisdiction, not personal jurisdiction. Though News Group has moved to dismiss the Enquirer's copyright claims for lack of subject matter jurisdiction, the parties have no dispute as to the facts germane to subject matter jurisdiction. Furthermore, the Evans court continued its discussion of this issue by noting that even under a factual attack, the test for dismissal is a rigorous one. In fact, the Evans court reversed the district court's dismissal for lack of subject matter jurisdiction.
But News Group overlooks a most critical issue in this regard: neither party has requested the Court to hold an evidentiary hearing on these factual disputes. Consequently, the parties, including News Group, apparently are content to rely solely upon already submitted evidence. As the Court has not held an evidentiary hearing on personal jurisdiction, the correct process for establishing jurisdictional facts for purposes of a motion to dismiss is well-established. Initially, the court accepts as true plaintiff's uncontroverted allegations of the complaint and uncontested deposition and affidavit evidence. Bracewell v. Nicholson Air Services, Inc., 748 F.2d 1499, 1504 (11th Cir. 1984). If these facts establish a prima facie case of jurisdiction, a motion to dismiss on that basis must, of course, be denied. Because the defendant had not controverted the plaintiff's jurisdictional allegations in Bracewell, the court had no cause to evaluate further the correct assignment of burdens.
Where a plaintiff's allegations in the complaint are controverted by evidence from a defendant, the plaintiff has the burden to produce evidence substantiating his allegations. But in the absence of an evidentiary hearing, if a plaintiff's uncontroverted and substantiated allegations and evidence support a prima facie case of jurisdiction, then a plaintiff is not required to prove jurisdiction by a preponderance of the evidence. Data Disc, Inc. v. Systems Tech. Assoc., Inc., 557 F.2d 1280, 1285 (9th Cir. 1977).
This approach to establishing jurisdictional facts has the effect of resolving contested facts in plaintiff's favor. Brown v. Flowers Industries, Inc., 688 F.2d 328, 332 (5th Cir. 1982). Without holding an evidentiary hearing, the court must give full credit to plaintiff's jurisdictional factual allegations and evidence, unless the plaintiff has failed to buttress its allegations in the complaint with affidavits or discovery material after the defendant has pierced the pleadings.
The parties do not dispute the preliminary facts relevant to this litigation. Collins and Holm employed Edward Sanderson, a professional photographer, to photograph their November 6, 1985 wedding in Las Vegas, Nevada. Immediately after the wedding, Sanderson began to negotiate with various publications, including News Group and the Enquirer, in order to sell the publication and syndication rights to the photographs. Although Sanderson, on behalf of Collins and Holm, had reached a tentative deal with News Group for sale of the pictures, Holm intervened to reject News Group's offer. Instead, Holm accepted the Enquirer's offer in the early afternoon of November 7, 1985. On November 8, 1985 the Enquirer entered into a written contract with Collins, Holm and Sanderson. Under this contract, the Enquirer paid $160,000 for the exclusive right to publish and syndicate the wedding photographs. News Group has not offered an alternate description of the events leading up to the Enquirer's purchase of the wedding pictures.
The Court finds the following facts solely for purposes of this motion to dismiss and based upon the Enquirer's obligation merely to present a prima facie case of jurisdictional facts. On November 7, 1985, News Group's editor, Stuart Kuttner, telephoned the Enquirer's Florida office from London, England to inquire about the Collins wedding photographs. The Enquirer informed Kuttner that it was interested in internationally syndicating the photographs after it formally acquired the rights to them. On November 8, 1985, Kuttner then phoned the Enquirer's London representative, Michael Vohmann, to ask about the wedding pictures. Vohmann told Kuttner that he had no knowledge of the Collins photos, but said that he would get back to Kuttner after speaking with the Enquirer's head office in Florida and ...